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By CSUF MSIDT Scholar Bill Bennett

Bill Bennett

Bill Bennett

  • Instructional Technologist
    Associate Professor
  • Mt. San Jacinto College
  • Menifee, CA 92584

  • Education:
  • B.S. Vocational Ed., CSUSB
  • M.A. Career & Technology Education (CTE) - Coordination & Supervision, CSUSB
  • M.S. Instructional Design & Technology (IDT), CSUF

  • Professional Certifications:

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Baby Hawks

Coitus Interuptus

Meow Meow Meow Meow


Bee In Flower

The Mr. Phil Show

Eddie Sghetti





Bennett Ranch's Hot & Sassy


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Bennett's Pretty in Paisley

Dottie Goes to the Dentist

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Route 66 by the Juice Weasles

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Creating a C# Sharp Console Project On Visual Studio for Mac Community

CSIS 111B Assignment 2 Hello Input Input

CSIS 111B Creating a C# Console Project in Visual Studio

CSIS 111B Binary Encoding

CSIS 111B Assignment 5 Hello (Input) (Input)

CSIS 111B Lesson 5 Data Types

CSIS 111B Midterm Assignment

CSIS 111B Lesson 7 Sorting Algorithms

CSIS 111B Creating a C# Console Project in Visual Studio

CSIS 111B Lesson 8 Repetition Structures

CSIS 111B Assignment 9 Decision Structures

CSIS 111B Binary Encoding

CSIS 111B Lesson 9 Decision Structures

CSIS 111B Lesson 10 Modular Programming

CSIS 111B Lesson 11 File I O

CSIS 111B Lesson 12 Exception Handling

CSIS 113B Lecture 3 - Decision Structures (Part 1)

CSIS 113B Demo

CSIS 113B Welcome

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CSIS 113B Guided Practice 1

CSIS 113B Lecture 2 - Java Data Types (Updated)

CSIS 113B Guided Practice 2A

CSIS 113B Guided Practice 2B

CSIS 113B Lecture 3

CSIS 113B Lecture 3A - Decisions (part 1)

CSIS 113B Guided Practice 3A

CSIS 113B Lecture 3B - Decisions (part 2)

CSIS 113B Guided Practice 3B

CSIS 113B Lecture 4A - Repetition Structures (part 1)

CSIS 113B Lecture 4 - Decision Structures (part 2)

CSIS 113B Guided Practice 4

CSIS 113B Guided Practice 5

CSIS 113B Lecture 5 - Iteration (part 1)

CSIS 113B Lecture 6 - Iteration (part 2)

CSIS 113B Guided Practice 6A

CSIS 113B Guided Practice 6B

CSIS 113B Lecture 7

CSIS 113B Guided Practice 7A

CSIS 113B Guided Practice 7B

CSIS 113B Guided Practice 7C

CSIS 113B Lecture 8

CSIS 113B Guided Practice 8A

CSIS 113B Guided Practice 8B

CSIS 113B Lecture 9

CSIS 113B Guided Practice 9A

CSIS 113B Guided Practice 9B

CSIS 113B Guided Practice 9C

CSIS 113B Lecture 10

CSIS 113B Guided Practice 10A

CSIS 113B Guided Practice 10B

CSIS 113B Guided Practice 10C

CSIS 113B Lecture 11

CSIS 113B Guided Practice 11A

CSIS 113B Guided Practice 11B

CSIS 113B Guided Practice 11C

CSIS 115A How To Complete Prep Assignment

Fundamental Concepts of the World Wide Web

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

HTML Introduction

Introduction to HTML

CSIS 115A Review Assignment 1 (RA1)

CSIS 115A Review Assignment 2 (RA2)

CSIS 115A Review Assignment 3 (RA3)

CSIS 115A Review Assignment 4 (RA4)

CSIS 117D Chapter 1 End of Chapter Exercise

CSIS 117D Lesson 1 Publishing

CSIS 117D Lesson 2 End of Chapter Exercise

CSIS117D Lesson 4 End of Chapter Excercise

CSIS 117D Chapter 5 End of Chapter Exercise

CSIS 117D Chapter 6 End of Chapter Exercise

CSIS 117D Chapter 7 End of Chapter Exercise

CSIS 117D Chapter 8 End of Chapter Exercise

CSIS 119A Lesson 8

Collision Versus Broadcast Domains

CSIS 202 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

CSIS 202 Chapter 1: The Data Communications Industry

CSIS 202 Chapter 2: Data Communications Concepts

CSIS 202 Chapter 3: Basic Data Communication Technology

CSIS 202 Chapter 4: Local Area Networks

CSIS 202 Chapter 5: Voice Communication Concepts and Technology

CSIS 202 Chapter 6: Wide Area Networking Concepts Architectures & Services

CSIS 202 Chapter 7: Local Area Network Communications Protocols

CSIS 202 Chapter 8: Advanced TCP/IP Network Design

CSIS 202 Chapter 9: Local Area Network Operating Systems and Remote Access

IP Address/Subnet Mask Relationship

CSIS 202 Chapter 11 - Network Management (part 1)

CSIS 202 Chapter 11 - Network Management (part 10)

CSIS 202 Chapter 11 - Network Management (part 11)

CSIS 202 Chapter 11 - Network Management (part 12)

CSIS 202 Chapter 11 - Network Management (part 5)

CSIS 202 Chapter 11 - Network Management (part 6)

CSIS 202 Chapter 11 - Network Management (part 7)

CSIS 202 Chapter 11 - Network Management (part 8)

CSIS 202 Chapter 11 - Network Management (part 9)

CSIS202 Chapter 11 - Network Management (part 2)

CSIS202 Chapter 11 - Network Management (part 3)

CSIS202 Chapter 11 - Network Management (part 4)

Network Management Part 1

Local Area Networks

CSIS 525 Review Assignment 10

CSIS 525 Review Assignment 11

CSIS 525 Review Assignment 12

CSIS 525 Review Assignment 13

Technology to Support Learning

Buffalo Annie

Miller/Davidson Theory

Batman and Robin 8mm

Floating Leaf



Class Assignments

IDT 550: Practicum
IDT 597: Project

Learning Objects Archive

Instructional Design Overview

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
    1. The Six Domains of the Instructional Design Knowledge Base
  2. Instructional Design Theory (Descriptive)
    1. Components an Instructional Design Theory Should Include
    2. Constructs about the Nature of Instructional Design Theory
  3. Instructional Design Models (Prescriptive)
    1. ADDIE
    2. 4C/ID


Instructional design is the process of combining descriptive and prescriptive theories in an effort to develop instructional products which are effective, efficient, and engaging.

Instruction (however you conceive it) can be discussed in terms of factors such as context (for example, corporate, government, military, college, and K–12), domain (for example, science, education, and mathematics), environment (for example, face-to-face, online, virtual, and simulation), and culture (for example, country, religion, and location). (Bruner, Capella, ED7420, Unit 1, Introduction).

"Instructional design (ID) today is an established profession, as well as an area of study. As a profession, it consists of a series of well-defined competencies, and an active group of practitioners who work in increasingly complex and sophisticated environments. As an area of study, it has a rich and growing foundation of research and theory viewed from increasingly diverse points of view. Both the practice and the study of ID can be seen in two ways: as strategies for creating particular products and as the implementation and management of the overall design process. In either of these orientations ID is a planning process. As such, distinguished from development processes, the actual production of instructional materials" (Richey, Klein, & Tracey, 2011).

"Instructional design synthesizes elements from a number of related disciplines, such as communication, psychology, curriculum development, and computer-assisted instruction [CAI]" Ledford & Sleeman, 2000, p. 20). In addition to the influence from these disciplines, instructional design is also influenced by many other theories including communication theory, systems theory, learning theory, design theory, and instructional theory (Smith & Ragan, 2005, p. 33, fig. 2.4).

Contributions to instructional design can be organized into two groupings descriptive and prescriptive. Instructional design theory is the descriptive grouping and instructional design models make up the prescriptive offerings.

Six Domains of the Instructional Design Knowledge Base

Domains of the instructional design knowledge base.
(Richey, Klein, & Tracey, 2011, p. 4).

Instructional design as a discipline makes informed decisions based on various theories and models (Richey, Klein, & Tracey, 201, p. 4).

Instructional Design Theory

Instructional design theories abound, but Merrill (2009) feels that the all have general principles in common and wrote a paper about it titled the First Principles of Instruction.

Due the confusion caused by a non-precise usage of the instructional design theory vocabulary and an observed disagreement within the instructional design research community Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman (2009) proposed a ADDIE-like version of how to organize instructional design theory as a way to synthesize previous instructional design models into one common framework. The components they suggested should be included in an instructional design theory and a description of the component's task are shown in the table below.

Components an Instructional Design Theory Should Include

Component Name Component Task
event Describing what the instruction should be like
analysis Gathering Information for making decisions
planning Creating the instructional plans
building Creating instructional resources
implementation Preparing for implementation
evaluation Evaluating the instruction

(Reigeluth, 2009, p. 8)

Figure 1 below represents an adaptation of the Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman model; it has been abbreviated in order to accentuate the titles of each of the six components. In order to accurately represent Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman's model, the reader should read each component as the instructional (component name) design theory; e.g. instructional event design theory, instructional analysis design theory, etc.

The six components of instructional design theory as proposed by Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman, 2009, p. 9.
Figure 1.

Constructs About the Nature of Instructional Design Theory

All elements of any instructional theory can be categorized as one or the other of these two constructs.

  1. Instructional method
    • Scope of a method (a continuum from micro through meso to macro)
    • Generality of a method (a continuum from universal to local)
    • Precision of a method ( a continuum from highly precise to highly imprecise)
      • Parts of a method (categories that are more precise)
      • Kinds of a method (categories that are more precise)
      • Criteria for a method (categories that are more precise)
    • Power of a method (a continuum from low to high)
    • Consistency of a method ( a continuum from  low to high)
  2. Instructional situation
    • Values (categories)
      • Values about learning goals
      • Values about priorities
      • Values about methods
      • Values about who has power
    • Conditions (categories)
      • Content
      • Leaner
      • Learning environment
      • Instructional development constraints

(Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman, 2009, pp. 21-24)

Instructional Design Models

Many models for developing instruction exist including ADDIE (ISD), 4C/ID (ID),


One of the more popular ID models is ADDIE which is an acronym for the five steps which it comprises, Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. For the most part these steps can be applied in a linear (waterfall) fashion, however newer iterations stress that that the entire process is cyclical in that even after the instruction is implemented it should be analyzed for redesign, redevelopment or re-implementation when a new or altered instructional need is determined to exist. Also, evaluation should occur at each of the first four steps of the process. In order for the instructional methodology at each step to properly be evaluated, a specific instrument of evaluation should be created and applied for each step in the process.

For more information see ADDIE Model.

Figure 2: The ADDIE model.


van Merriënboer (2002) developed the four component instructional design model to address what he felt were limitations in previous offerings by other ID models. For more information see Blueprints for Complex Learning: The 4C/ID Model

An illustration of the 4C/ID model.
Figure 3 - The 4C/ID instructional model (van Merriënboer, 2002).